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Child Development Theories – Down’s Syndrome and Autism

id=”mod_37462243″>Child development theory is a demanding and competitive area driven by a need understand the exact nature of the developing child. Traditional medical models of understanding and intervention are in stark contrast to more recent psychological models initiating the debate over which model is of most value and how best to meet the developing needs of your child.

The journey from birth, through infancy and onto adulthood is by no means a smooth one and can be challenged by many factors. Two such examples are that of Down’s syndrome and autism.

Medical Model | Source Medical Models of Intervention in Child Development

History shows a medical model of understanding and intervention has held dominance in the past. This approach views difficulties experienced by a child to be that of ‘disease’ and should be treated in the same respect.

A clear route of investigation, diagnosis, treatment to cure is employed by fully trained medical professionals with little or no reference to social interactions or circumstance. Moreover, intervention is entirely focussed on the child and treatment given to that child.

Psychological Models of Intervention

The more recent development of a psychological model of intervention is concerned with psychosocial factors such as relationships with parents and siblings and environmental factors such as the circumstances the child is living in.

Intervention follows a more explorative route taking time over assessments and aiming to achieve a favourable ‘outcome’ rather than a ‘cure’. The psychological model is also particularly concerned with intellectual development which is a topical starting point for 크레이지슬롯총판 this debate.

Intellectual Development in Children

The definition of intellectual impairment depends very much upon which approach is used. The medical model approach views this as intelligence that is measured by standardised methods, i.e. IQ tests. Intelligence is assessed and when scores are lower than a certain level or where a diagnosis has been made regarding lower than what is considered ‘normal’ intelligence, intervention is usually activated.

Your child learns as the play and explore the world around them | Source A psychological model defines intellectual ability as what is different from the majority. Overall the level of intelligence that has been labelled ‘normal’ is of crucial significance and is used as a baseline.

Children’s intelligence is generally not measured by standardised means but often children are grouped into categories with others of similar ability. They are then labelled with a term which is considered appropriate by society at that particular time.

Differences in ability such as this has created several explanations. Three in particular were identified by Zigler and Balla (1982);

1) deficit in that a process is missing and clear brain dysfunction is present,

2) delay in that a child’s development is delayed and,

3) difference where a child is operating in different ways to others.

Both the delay and difference models refer to children who have no brain dysfunction but do have some form of intellectual impairment. All three models have recently been applied to the development of children with Down’s syndrome and autism.

Chromosomes | Source Down’s Syndrome

Down’s syndrome is a genetic chromosomal disorder which can be detected prenatally, however identification often occurs shortly after birth where abnormalities can be tested for.

Children who have Down’s syndrome take longer to process visual information than others and also process tactile information differently. A common intervention method at the present time in the UK is that of Portage.

This is a medical model of intervention that focuses solely on the child and uses standardised methods of treatment. Designed in the US, Portage is a method involving a key worker who, using a developmental checklist, works with the child and the carer to set developmental targets over a set period time, including when to work on a particular skill and how to go about it.

This process is repeated with each visit with the aim to encourage development to the standard of a ‘normal’ child on which the checklists are based upon.

Building Blocks in Child Development | Source The Portage method has been praised by parents and carers, however it is difficult to pinpoint whether it actually has any long term benefits for the child.

This kind of intervention follows a traditional route where a difficulty is identified and a treatment is employed.

Other factors such as parenting and social interaction are not considered and not incorporated into the intervention programme. These points highlight the areas in which a medical model of intervention such as Portage may not consider, and 카지노사이트 | 바카라사이트 | 더킹카지노 | 샌즈카지노 | 코인카지노 | 솔레어카지노 | 크레이지슬롯 areas in which many researchers feel are too significant to ignore.


The criticism of the Portage method is the basis in which the developmental checklists, in which this method relies on, are created. They are centred on the developmental stages and milestones of a ‘normal’ child and may not be the most effective way of improving the development of a child with Down’s syndrome.

Down’s Syndrome Information

Some researchers claim children with Down’s syndrome follow the same path of development as non-Downs syndrome children but their development is delayed (Dunst and Trivette 1990). Whereas others disagree, and believe a delay model cannot explain the many differences in which these children display (Morss, 1985).

Which model is applied to conditions such as Down’s syndrome determines which model of intervention is favoured. Despite disagreements amongst researchers on this issue it is becoming increasingly apparent that a psychological model of intervention may be a more effective method to improve development in such children.

Many researchers such as Wishart (1990) are pushing for an intervention model which is designed specifically to the child and that is in line with the understanding of conditions like Down’s syndrome and how they develop. In particular this involves recognising that such children are developing in different ways rather than having just delayed development.

These more recent opinions are also reflected in other conditions. One such example is that of autism.


Autism was originally identified by Kanner in 1943 as being a condition of innate causes where children display an inability to relate to or hold relationships with others. It is condition often undetected until early infancy when a child’s behaviour becomes a concern when it does not fit with the ‘norm’.

Autism causes impairments in social, communicative and imaginative functioning and research suggests it has biological origins. This has lead to a medical model of intervention where similarly to Down’s syndrome, intervention is based around a standardised education programme which uses the ‘normal’ development route as a base.

Autism is now recognised as a lifelong condition where behaviour and skills can be improved but autistic behaviours will be present throughout life.

Causes of Autism

The causes of Autism are under great debate centred on the key questions of whether it is a condition caused by environmental factors or by factors from within the child. Consequently, which approach is taken towards the cause will greatly influence the method of intervention undertaken.

Further to Kanner’s early claims, research has suggested Autism is not caused by innate factors but autistic behaviours are in fact symptoms of delayed personality development. Significantly, Kanner himself altered his view in later years and highlighted environmental factors, education and parenting as equally influential in the causes of autism.

Bettelheim (1967) was strongly against innate causes and believed if parenting was erratic and a child was not cared for correctly in infancy they would not develop a mature personality due to a lack of social interactions and begin to show autistic behaviours. Further, he favoured a psychological model of intervention.

Support for a psychological method of intervention can also be seen in the techniques of Niko and Elizabeth Tinbergen in the 1970’s. They suggested an emotional and motivational imbalance in a child may be the cause for autistic behaviour (Chance, 1985). They believed that this in turn causes autistic children to find strong emotions overwhelming, causing them to become withdrawn, often from people and surroundings they are familiar with. They suggested a technique called ‘holding therapy’ designed to strengthen the mother-child bond.

Source Is Autism Genetic?

Morton (1989) suggests autism has a genetic basis. Studies conducted have suggested abnormal brain functioning may be a significant factor.

For example, links have been found between autism, infantile spasms and epilepsy pointing at brain stem and temporal lobe dysfunction. Furthermore, neurochemical studies have shown a difference in the brain functioning of autism suffers in comparison with non autism sufferers.

Variable expressivity has been suggested as a possible factor in autism where a parent or a sibling of an autistic child may have a cognitive impairment, providing further support for a genetic basis.

Early intervention in autism is often centred around management of the behavioural and communication difficulties experienced. Programmes based on operant conditioning are common and are often employed through special schools and education programmes designed for children with conditions such as autism.


Examples such as Down’s syndrome and 우리카지노계열 autism serve as illustrators to the current theory, research and methods that are in place.

The current debate centres on whether these conditions are due to a delay in development or a complete difference in the way development proceeds. More recent research appears to be pointing towards a difference model rather than a delay model, certainly in the cases of autism and Downs syndrome which has strong implications for intervention.

Overall it can be said that modern research is providing increasing evidence, adding to this debate all the time. Embracing social factors such as parenting and social interactions alongside the child’s personal difficulties may provide a more efficient and positive intervention method which can only be improved upon in time as research grows.

More from PsychGeek

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The cognitive theory of emotion is a rapidly advancing area in psychology research.


Bettelheim, B. (1967). Empty fortress. Simon and Schuster.

Chance, M. R. A. (1985). ” Autistic” Children: New Hope for a Cure By Niko Tinbergen and Elizabeth A. Tinbergen (review). Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 28(4), 636-638.

Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (1990). Assessment of social support in early intervention programs.

Faulkner, D and Lewis, V. (1995) ‘Psychological Intervention: Down’s Syndrome and Autism’ in Bancroft, D and Carr, V. (1995) ‘Influencing Children’s Development’, Oxford, The Open University/Blackwell

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous child,2(3), 카지노사이트추천 217-250.

Morss, J. R. (1985). Early cognitive development: Difference or delay. Current approaches to Down’s syndrome, 242-259.

Morton, J. (1989). The origins of autism. New Scientist, 124, 44-47.

Wishart, J. G., & Duffy, L. (1990). Instability of performance on cognitive tests in infants and young children with Down’s syndrome. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 60(1), 10-22.

Zigler, E., & Balla, D. (1982). Motivational and personality factors in the performance of the retarded. Mental retardation: The developmental-difference controversy, 9-26.

© 2014 Fiona Guy


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0 of 8192 characters usedPost CommentNo HTML is allowed in comments, but URLs will be hyperlinked. Comments are not for promoting your articles or other sites.

sendingAUTHORFiona Guy

5 years ago from UK

It certainly is a challenging area and everybody wants the best for their child. The parents role is really very important and such a responsibility for any individual. Thank you Stewart for reading and sharing your thoughts!

Stewart Guy

5 years ago

This is an excellent hub, voted up; and a very challenging area for the medical profession as well as for parents of a child or children with either Downs Syndrome or Autism. Let us all hope that further research can answer some of the questions on the best way to help the children who have these conditions and the parents to better understand that they play a crucial role in a child’s development from the day the are born!


5 years ago from UK

Thank you DDE! I totally agree, those early years for learning and development are so very important for children and I do wish more parents would take that on board!

Devika Primić

5 years ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

incredible! Child development is crucial and very important for all parents to pay attention to. A useful hub and I voted up!

Streaming wars spill into CES 2020 as media nabs the spotlight

id=”article-body” class=”row” section=”article-body”> CES officially kicks off Tuesday. 

Getty Images This story is part of CES 2020, our complete coverage of the showroom floor and the hottest new tech gadgets around. Every year, CES draws the tech-obsessed to gawk at fancy televisions and off-the-wall gadgets. This year, though, the conference’s long-running media sideshow is flooding onto the main stage, including two keynotes by companies vying to shape the future of TV.  

Media companies and marketers long have fueled a show-behind-the-show at CES, 엠카지노추천 one that has little to do with the next hot doodad. The mobs of media folks in Las Vegas may never even make it over to any of the big show floors. Instead, they’re squirreled away in hotel suite meetings or mingling at panels and parties around the Aria Resort & Casino, the epicenter of CES’ media confab sometimes referred to as Tech South.

Meanwhile, companies seem to be rushing toward a convergence of tech and media.

On one hand, tech giants are pouring resources into becoming media heavyweights. That goes for stalwarts like Netflix, estimated to have unleashed a $15 billion budget for programming last year, as well as relative newcomers to video like Apple, which launched its Apple TV Plus in November on the back of a reported $6 billion budget to rope in some of Hollywood’s biggest stars. And AT&T’s $85 billion takeover of HBO-owner Time Warner — now WarnerMedia — finally made it into the clear last year. 

On the other hand, traditional media players are arming themselves with tech firepower like never before. Disney launched its Netflix competitor, Disney Plus, in November, a culmination of its $71 billion acquisition of 21st Century Fox last year and of years spent reorienting the entire company around the service. And Comcast’s NBCUniversal is waiting in the wings to follow suit with its own streaming service, called Peacock, early this year. 

CES 2017 brought the unveiling of Hulu’s live-television streaming subscription, and 2016 was marked by Netflix’s keynote reveal that it launched worldwide except in China. What does CES 2020 have in store? Here’s a peek at the media presence in Vegas this year.

Streaming wars at CES

The streaming wars are pitting a raft of new streaming services against each other, and they’re all launching within about seven months of each other. The outcomes of these skirmishes will shape the future of television — and affect how much you pay to watch your favorite shows and movies. Apple and Disney were first to enter the fray in November, and three more companies are launching their competitors, backed by billions of dollars in investment, in the first few months of 2020. 

And all three of them are presenting at CES this year. 

The first is probably one most people have never heard of: Quibi, which has even morphed its Twitter name to “WTFisQuibi” in recent weeks. Backed by every major Hollywood studio, Quibi is being touted as a star-studded mobile subscription service for short-form video — “quick bites,” or quibis, as the company has dubbed them. 

Quibi boasts an eye-popping slate of talent. Among traditional Hollywood stars, Quibi has lined up Dwayne Johnson, Chrissy Teigen, Kevin Hart, Jennifer Lopez, Idris Elba, 엠카지노주소 Zac Efron, Tina Fey and 엠카지노 husband-and-wife combo Joe Jonas and Sophie Turner (but on different shows) — as well as a dizzying number of others. Steven Spielberg, J.J. Abrams, Guillermo del Toro and Ridley Scott are all contributing series. Plus, Quibi has recruited popular online celebs like Liza Koshy, Shan Boodram and Rachel Hollis.

Now playing: Watch this: CES 2020 preview: Surprise booths, slim screens and smart… 2:56 The company has stayed mum about the talent it’ll be bringing to the CES stage. But Quibi’s CES keynote is shaping up to be the service’s big public unveiling ahead of its April 6 launch, so your safest bet in Vegas next week will probably be that Quibi tries to blow away the trade show with celebrity wattage. 

So far, Quibi has said the service will cost $8 a month for ad-free memberships or $5 for monthly subscriptions that also run ads. The keynote will be Wednesday at 9:30 a.m. PT in the Park Theater, led by Quibi founder and Hollywood mogul Jeffrey Katzenberg and Quibi CEO Meg Whitman, the former chief of eBay and Hewlett-Packard. 

Katzenberg hasn’t been shy about Quibi’s ambition, saying the service should become as definitive for short video as Google is to search. “Five years from now … if we got this right, there will have been the era of movies, the era of television and the era of Quibi,” he said at SXSW in March.

The second combatant in the streaming wars to take the main CES stage is Comcast’s NBCUniversal, which will also launch Peacock in April. Peacock will be leaning into its back catalog of shows like The Office and Parks and Recreation. It hopes to make a reboot of The Office, as well as planned revivals of Battlestar Galactica by Mr. Robot creator Sam Esmail, 엠카지노 Punky Brewster and Saved by the Bell. 

But we don’t know nearly as many details about Peacock yet. The service will have a paid subscription and another tier supported by advertising, but it hasn’t specified price yet. We know some of the programming slated for Peacock, but not nearly all. One odd thing about NBCUniversal’s CES keynote: It comes a week before the company will hold a large private event unveiling Peacock in detail. 

NBCU’s keynote will also be Wednesday at the Park Theater, but at 4 p.m. PT. Officially titled “If TV Was Invented Today: NBCUniversal Reimagines the Future of Entertainment,” it will be led by the company’s head of advertising and partnerships, Linda Yaccarino, and it will include talent like Mandy Moore, star of NBC’s This is Us, and Terry Crews, host of America’s Got Talent. 

Finally, AT&T’s HBO Max will unleash in May with Friends, Big Bang Theory, Game of Thrones and Watchmen plus its own lineup of originals. Though AT&T’s WarnerMedia — the division behind HBO Max — isn’t presenting a keynote, it will make a presentation at the media-focused conference in the Aria on Tuesday at 1:45 p.m. PT. The tech chief of WarnerMedia, Jeremy Legg, and Andy Forssell, the group’s head of direct-to-consumer business (that is, streaming) are set to describe their experiences building a streaming video platform. 

Media mavens should also keep their eyes on: 

a Digital Hollywood conference track Monday

a Future of TV Is Now conference track Tuesday, as well as one focused on marketing

an Entertainment Summit hosted by Variety on Wednesday

The music front

Streaming music will have a presence at CES this year, too. 

Zane Lowe is the creative director of Apple Music. 

Getty Images Most notably, Apple is making a rare appearance at CES. While an Apple executive appearing on a CES privacy roundtable has generated a lot of attention, far less notice has been paid to another Apple figure speaking at CES this year. The creative director of Apple Music, Zane Lowe, will participate in a talk Tuesday at 1:15 pm ET at the Aria. 

Apple Music launched years after the latest wave of streaming music services already had the momentum to make streaming the main way people listen to music worldwide. But Apple Music quickly became the world’s second most popular music service by subscribers behind only Spotify. 

Speaking of the global leader, the company doesn’t have an official presentation at CES. But it will host a happy hour with a panel discussion about the future of podcasts. Spotify has said to expect a news announcement at the event, which will be Tuesday evening ahead of the company’s annual CES party. 

And Amazon Music will be trotting out Alicia Keys alongside the service’s head of label relations, Andre Stapleton, and a Grammy-winning mastering and mixing engineer, Emily Lazar. They’re all collected to talk about “the importance of delivering music the ways artists recorded it.” Amazon Music’s panel will be Wednesday at 1 p.m. PT at the Aria. 

Not at all coincidently, Amazon launched Amazon Music HD service in September. So another safe bet: Count on lots of cheerleading for that $13-a-month subscription.